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Heart Disease is the leading cause of death in the US
Two-thirds of US women who die suddenly of a heart attack had no symptoms
50% of heart attack victims have normal blood pressure
50% of heart attack victims have normal cholesterol
Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of women over age 25 in the United States

Bibliography / Research Studies

Latest Studies & Articles

Associations Among Lung Function, Arterial Elasticity, and Circulating Endothelial and Inflammation Markers: Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis - 01/02/2013

Update in Cardiology: Evidence Published in 2013 - 04/10/2014

Improving the Identification and Management of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease - 08/2013

Identifying the Risk and Preventing the Consequences of Cardiovascular Disease - 03/21/2013

Underuse of Cardiovascular Prevention Pharmacotherapy in Patients Presenting With ST-elevation Myocardial Infraction - 05/2012

Effect of Carvedilol, Lisinopril and Their Combination on Vascular and Cardiac Health in Patients With Borderline Blood Pressure: the DETECT Study - 2012

Vascular and Cardiac Functional and Structural Screening to Identify Risk of Future Morbid Events: Preliminary Observations - 05/02/2011

Should The Blood Pressure or The Blood Vessel Be The Target of Therapy? - 2011

Preventing Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Business and Industry - 10/2010

Comprehensive Noninvasive Arterial Vascular Evaluation - 2009

Time to Foster a Rational Approach to Preventing Cardiovascular Morbid Events - 2008

Beneficial Effects of Valsartan in Asymptomatic Individuals With Vascular of Cardiac Abnormalities - 03/06/2007 

Early Screening Device is Critical For Risk Assessment (Today in Cardiology) - 01/2005

Beyond the Cuff, Using Arterial Elasticity Indices in the Early Assessment and Management of Cardiovascular Disease (Cohn Whitepaper) - 05/2005

Arterial Elasticity as Part of a Comprehensive Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk and Drug Treatment - 2005

Screening For Early Detection of Cardiovascular Disease in Asymptomatic Individuals - 2003 
Vascular Tests - Arterial Evaluation Tests
Large and Small Artery Elasticity Evaluation

Study on Ultrasonic Elasticity Imaging for Arterial Tissue Characterization

>> Bibliography of Abstracts and Published Articles - Complete 2008-2009 edition


Scientific Evidence for Rasmussen Disease Score

Duprez DA, Kaiser DR, Whitwam W, Finkelstein S, Belalcazar A, Patterson R, Glasser S, Cohn JN. Arterial Stiffness, Vascular Disease, and Risk of Cardiovascular Events. Circulation. 2006;113:601-603
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/113/5/601.extract?sid=5db00428-a974-4ced-b808-15c2e26951e8 

Grey E, Bratteli C, Glasser SP, et al. Reduced small artery but not large artery elasticity is an independent risk marker for cardiovascular events. Am J Hypertens 2003;16:265-9
http://ajh.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/4/265.abstract?sid=c1976c11-07d7-4796-a6fd-0193d28bdd98 


Resting Blood Pressure

Liszka HA, MD, Mainous III AG, King DE, Everett C, Egan BM. Prehypertension and Cardiovascular Morbidity. Annals of Family Medicine 3:294-299 (2005)
http://www.annfammed.org/cgi/content/abstract/3/4/294

Giovanni de Simone, Devereux RB, Chinali M, Roman MJ, Best LG, Welty TK, Lee ET, Howard BV. Risk Factors for Arterial Hypertension in Adults with Initial Optimal Blood Pressure The Strong Heart Study. Hypertension 2006;47:162
http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/47/2/162

Blood Pressure Response During Treadmill Testing

Lim PO and MacDonald TM. Step Test in Hypertension. Q J Med 2000; 93: 703-705
http://qjmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/93/11/703

Singh JP, Larson MG, ScD, Manolio TA, O'Donnell CJ, Lauer M, Evans JC, Levy D. Blood Pressure Response During Treadmill Testing as a Risk Factor for New-Onset Hypertension. The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1999;99:1831-1836
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10199879

Retinal Vessels Evaluation

Harry A.J. Struijker-Boudier. Retinal Microcirculation and Early Mechanisms of Hypertension. Hypertension. 2008;51:821
http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/hypertensionaha;51/4/821

Jie Jin Wang; Tien Yin Wong. Genetic Determinants of Retinal Vascular Caliber Additional Insights Into Hypertension Pathogenesis. Hypertension. 2006;47:644
http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/hypertensionaha;47/4/644

Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) Ultrasound

Nambi V, Chambless L, Folsom AR, He M, Hu Y, Mosley T, Volcik K, Boerwinkle E, Ballantyne CM. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and presence or Absence of Plaque Improves Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease Risk. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Apr 13;55(15):1600-7
http://content.onlinejacc.org/cgi/content/short/55/15/1600

Urinary albumintest for Micro-albuminuria excretion

Borch-Johnsen K, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Strandgaard S, et al. Urinary albumin excretion: an independent predictor of ischemic heart disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:1992-7
http://atvb.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/19/8/1992

Hillege HL, Fidler V, Diercks GF, et al. Prevention of Renal and Vascular End Stage Disease (PREVEND) Study Group. Urinary Albumin Excretion Predicts Cardiovascular and Noncardiovascular Mortality in General Population. Circulation 2002;106: 1777-82
http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/106/14/1777

Cardiac Tests - Heart Evaluation Tests
ECG

Kannel WB, Abbott RD. A Prognostic Comparison of Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Unrecognized Myocardial Infarction: The Framingham Study. Am Heart J 1986;111:391-7
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2936230

Plasma Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

Wang TJ, Larson MG, Keyes MJ, Levy D, Benjamin EJ et al. Plasma Natriuretic Peptide Levels and the Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Death. N Engl J Med 2004;350:655-63
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/reprint/350/7/655.pdf

Wang TJ, Larson MG, Keyes MJ, Levy D, Benjamin EJ, Vasan RS. Association of Plasma Natriuretic Peptide Levels With Metabolic Risk Factors in Ambulatory Individuals. Circulation. 2007;115:1345-1353
http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/115/11/1345

Cardiac Ultrasound

Wang TJ, Levy D, Benjamin EJ, Vasan RS. The Epidemiology of "Asymptomatic" Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction: Implications for Screening. Ann Intern Med 2003;138: 907-16
http://www.annals.org/content/138/11/907.full.pdf+html

Abdominal Aortic Aneurism

Johnsen SH, Forsdahl SH, Singh K, Jacobsen BK. Atherosclerosis in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Causal Event or a Process Running in Parallel? The Tromso Study. JAHA Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010:30:00-0
http://atvb.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/short/ATVBAHA.110.203588

Other Manuscripts and Abstracts from Rasmussen Center

Duprez DA, Somasundaram PE, Sigurdsson G, Hoke L, Florea N, Cohn JN. Relationship between C-reactive protein and arterial stiffness in an asymptomatic population. J Hum Hypertens 19(7):515-9, 2005.

Duprez D, De Buyzere M, Van Den Noortgate N, Simoens J, Achten E, Afschrift M, Cohn JN . Relation between periventricular or deep white matter lesions and arterial elasticity indices in very old people. Age and Aging 30:325-330, 2001.

Duprez D, De Buyzere ML, De Bruyne L, Clement DL, Cohn JN. Small and large artery elasticity indices in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Vascular Medicine 6:211-214, 2001.

Siggurdsson G, Withwam W, Hoke L, Duprez D, Cohn JN. Noninvasive pulse contour analysis associated with microalbuminuria. JACC, 41, 6, Suppl A, 263A, 2003.

holakanahalli VN, Duprez D, Hoke L, Cohn J. Elevated brain natriuretic peptide levels are related to impaired small artery elasticity. JACC, 41, 6, Suppl A, 286A, 2003.

Somasundaram PE, Duprez DA, Sigurdsson G, McKnite SH, Hoke L, Florea N, Cohn JN. CRP Is associated with increased large artery stiffness in a primary prevention population. Am J Hypertension 16, 5 Pt2, 5A, 2003.

Sigurdsson G, Duprez DA, Hirsch AT, Florea N, Hoke L, Cohn JN. Supranormal ankle brachial index is associated with a favorable exercise blood pressure response. Am J Hypertension 16, 5 Pt 2, 161 A, 2003.

Duprez DA, Sigurdsson G, P Dasari, Florea N, Hoke L, Cohn JN. Differences in brain- natriuretic peptide and left ventricular dimensions and mass in normotension, prehypertension and hypertension. JACC 43, suppl A, 512A, 2004.

Duprez DA, W Witwam, DR Kaiser, SM Finkelstein, SP Glasser, A Belalcazar, R Patterson, Cohn JN. Systolic reflective index: a new parameter to study arterial elasticity. JACC 43, suppl A, 528A, 2004.

Duprez DA, PE Somusandaram, Florea N, Hoke L, Cohn JN. Are arterial stiffness and micro-albuminuria in pre-hypertensives different from normotensives and hypertensives? Am J Hypertension 17, 5Pt2, 130A, 2004.

Duprez DA, K Straith, Florea N, Cohn JN. C-reactive protein is related to an increased blood pressure response during exercise in a primary prevention population. Am J Hypertension 17, 5Pt2, 149A, 2004.

Florea N, Hoke L, Sommers PA, Taylor AL, Cohn JN, Duprez D. Gender differences in new markers for early detection of cardiovascular disease in asymptomatic individuals. Circulation, 111, E-50-51, 2005.

Bransford TL, Duprez D, W Whitwam, Florea N, Hoke L, Cohn J. Peri-menopausal differences in QT-corrected interval. Circulation, 111, E-84, 2005.

Duprez DA, Florea N, Hoke L, Killpatrick B, Cohn JN. Exercise blood pressure response is inversely related to large artery, but not to small artery elasticity. Am J Hypertension 18, 5Pt2: 12 A-13A, 2005.

Duprez DA, Kaiser DR, Florea N, Hoke L, Killpatrick B, Cohn J. Role of gender on the relationship between brain-natriuretic peptide (BNP) and left ventricular dimensions. Am J Hypertension 18, 5Pt2: 187 A, 2005.

Duprez DA, Florea N, Kilpatrick B, Hoke L, Cohn JN. Valsartan increases small arterial elasticity in asymptomatic individuals. Am J Hypertension 18, 5Pt2: 224 A, 2005.

Wu FM, Duprez DA, Florea N, Jones K, Hoke L, Cohn JN. Progressive decrease in large and small artery elasticity with the presence of multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. JACC 47;suppl A: 312A, 2006.

Murray S, Nguyen J, Duprez D, Florea N, Hoke L, Cohn JN. The heterogenous influence of metabolic risk factors on arterial elasticity. JACC 47; suppl A: 346A, 2006.

Jordan CO, Duprez D, Florea N, Hoke L, Cohn JN. Gender difference of small and large artery elasticity in relation to pulse pressure. JACC 47; suppl A: 347A, 2006.

Duprez DA, Florea N, Jones K, Hoke L, Cohn JN. Beneficial effects of valsartan on the Rasmussen risk score in asymptomatic individuals at high risk. J Clin Hypertension 2006;8:Suppl A:A44-P88.

Duprez D, Florea N, Grandits G, Neaton J, Jones LK, Hoke L, Cohn JN. Gender-Difference in Brain-Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Reflects Different Cardiac Remodeling. Circulation 2006;114.